Translation is the changing of a language to convey the message or intention of the “speaker” or original product of message that sent in an “oral” and visual form. Translation can be divided into two which are translation in semantic (meaning) and translation in communicative (oral). Translation is semantic express text or express thought, ideas, opinons and feelings in the form of essay, articles, lyrics, poems or movies. Semantic brings informal meaning because it's express something. Communicative on the other hand, is an infomative and vocative texts where it's requires higher knowledge and it brings formal meaning. Formal and informal is the characteristic that diffrentiate semantic and communicative.
There are many methods in translation which are borrowing translation, transference translation, calque translation, oblique translation, transposition translation, modulation translation, equivalence translation, adaptation translation and literal translation.
Literal translation is a translation that follows closely the form of source language. It is a translation of text from one language to another “word-for-word”, rather than giving the sense of the original. It is also known as word-for-word translation or direct translation. According to some reference, literal translation is a word-for-word translation which often makes no sense when read. It is because the language is translated by totally following the original words without any changes. The literal translation is not really care about the grammatical functions. The words are translated according the original word order. That is the reason why some of the translation makes no sense when read.
For example, Tarmizi membasuh kereta baru that is the source language. The sentence will be translated Tarmizi washed car new that is the target language. the sentences are translated word by word.
Many translators suggest that literal translation is the safest way because the words are translated one by one. One purpose introducing literal translation is to provide amplified translation so that readers can understand the text. Literal translations also function as translating a long, precisely warded legal definition of an invention patent.
In conclusion, literal translation is one of the methods approaches of translation that follows closely the form of source language. It is a translation of word by word.