Wednesday, March 3, 2010

Political science text

Political Science Text

Congress provided a democratic legitimacy to these acts by immediately passing a general amnesty law. For many, it appeared that the moment of the Argentinazo, of the great national insurrection, had arrived. Others more cautiously took note of the removal of Galimberti ordered by Peron, after the Peronist Youth leader had threatened to form “popular militias.” These and other assessment- because virtually anything was possible that May 25th- all hinged on the designs, secret but undoubtedly brilliant, of Peron, regarded as the nation’s savior.

This phenomenon, utterly unique, of Peron’s being simultaneously many things for many people, was due to the heterogeneity of the Peronist movements and Peron’s decision and skill in not dispensing with any of its many parts. Furthermore, as Jose Luis Romero wrote, Peron’s symbolic figure, one and many at the same time, ended up replacing the real historical personality. For all, Peron expressed a general sentiment of a nationalist and popular kind, in reaction to the recent experience of denationalization and privilege. For some- die-hard Peronist trade union leaders and politicians-these sentiments were incarnated in the historic leader who, as in 1945, would bring back the old prosperity, distributed by a munificent welfare state. For others- the younger ones of every political stripe-Peron was the Third World revolutionary leader who would lead the country to liberation, national or social, animating his people’s potential

In contrast, others, heirs to the movement’s venerable anti-Communism, saw in Peron someone who would cut off the head of the hydra of social subversion with all the energy necessary, all the more dangerous and deserving of extermination for having usurped Peronism’s traditional banners. For many others- sectors of the middle or upper class, those who were perhaps the most recent discoverers of his virtues- Peron was the pacifier, the leader bereft of personal ambitions, the “herbivorous lion”, as he was called, who would put the interest of Argentina before those of Peronism and would be capable of harnessing society’s conflicts, attaining a rebuilding process, and setting the country on the path of the economic growth, in pursuit of Argentina’s status as a “great power”. The surprising phenomenon of 1973, the marvel of Peron’s charisma, was its capacity to reconcile so many unsatisfied longings, incompatible but all personified and legitimized in the old leader who was returning to the country. On March 1, 1973, the country voted massively against the military and authoritarian power and believed that neither one was ever coming back. It did not vote for any one of these options contained in the winning ticket, but for social, political and also military space in which were supposed to be settled.


1973: A Balance

For its protagonists, the roots of these violent conflicts were to be found in a volatile economy, with its succession o fits and starts, unfulfilled promises, and accumulated frustrations. Nevertheless, from a broader perspectives- undoubtedly an advantage of hindsight and enhanced by subsequent calamities still not imagined in 1973- the economy performed adequately, a performance that lasted until 1975, and did not justify the apocalyptic prognosis, though neither did it that of the “great power” Argentina.


What most notable was the growth of the agriculture sector in the pampa zone that beginning in the early 1960s and lasting until the early 1980s, reversed the long stagnation and the previous slump. In these prosperous years, the world found itself in conditions to turn at least a part of its needs for food into effective demand and new markets for Argentina grains and oils, particularly in the socialist countries- compensating for the failure of their own agriculture- which were either enjoying the benefits of high oil prices or beginning their industrial growth.

The pampa’s agriculture zone was substantially transformed, as were diverse modern economic islands in the traditional interior, such as the fruit-growing Rio Negro valley. The state promoted change in diverse ways- credit and subsidies for investments and the systematic actions of the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) - although it did not change its traditional policy of transferring resources into the urban economy, which continued with just a few modifications in its methods. What proved decisive were the effects of the economy’s general modernization. The local manufacturing of tractors and combine-harvesters, and also of silos and others storage installations, completed the mechanization of agriculture tasks and the substantial changes in storage and transportation methods.

Ahli kongres mengesahkan satu akta yang telah diluluskan dalam perjumpaan rang undang-undang secara demokrasi dengan serta merta. Akta ini diwujudkan setelah sekian lama penduduk Argentina menghadapi satu pemberontakan yang dahsyat. Penduduk di sekitar kawasan itu sangat mengambil tahu akan perihal perpindahan Galimbarti yang telah diarahkan oleh Peron setelah pemuda-pemuda Peron mengancam untuk menubuhkan pasukan militan. Peron dianggap seperti wira Negara disebabkan oleh perancangan yang teliti beliau sehingga boleh menyebabkan pelbagai kemungkinan berlaku pada 25 May.

Sesungguhnya fenomena yang berlaku ini sangat unik. Peron sanggup melakukan apa sahaja bagi membela nasib penduduk dengan perancangan tepat yang dilaksanakan. Setiap keputusan yang dibuat adalah berdasarkan kemahiran yang ada padanya dan segalanya tidak didedahkan. Tambahan pula, dalam tulisan Jose Luis Romero, beliau ada menyatakan Romero adalah orang penting pengganti tokoh-tokoh sejarah dahulu. Peron berkongsi perasaan dengan begitu bersemangat setelah melalui pelbagai pengalaman. Ahli-ahli Peron yang sanggup berjuang adalah terdiri daripada pemimpin-pemimpin dan ahli politik yang telah mengembalikan kegemilangan pemimpin-pemimpin terdahulu. Pada tahun 1945, hasil daripada usaha pemimpin-pemimpin ini, pusat kebajikan negeri dapat mengagihkan kemudahan dan kesenangan kepada penduduk setempat. Peron merupakan pahlawan ketiga di dunia yang mendatangkan perubahan kepada tanah airnya dengan kejayaannya menyingkirkan pengkhianat melalui caranya yang tersendiri dan beliau juga adalah harapan untuk memimpin Negara dan menyemarakkan semula potensi penduduk.

Namun begitu, bagi pewaris pergerakan anti-komunis, mereka melihat Peron sebagai seorang perwira yang akan membanteras ketua-ketua pergerakan lain yang menggunakn pelbagai cara untuk menawan kawasan itu. Bagi orang pertengahan dan atasan, yang baru menyedari kehebatan Peron, mereka menganggap Peron sebagai pelindung dan pemimpin yang tidak mempunyai kepentingan peribadi. Peron yang juga digelar ‘singa herbivor’ ini juga diharap dapat mengatasi segala konflik dan membangunkan semula kawasan ini serta memimpin Negara untuk mencapai pembangunan ekonomi yang mantap bagi merealisasikan matlamat Argentina sebagai sebuah kuasa besar. Peristiwa yang paling mengejutkan ialah pada tahun 1973, Peron telah berjaya mendamaikan banyak pihak dan menyeru pemimpin-pemimpin terdahulu untuk kembali ke Argentina. Pada 1 Mac 1973, Argentina telah memenangi undian secara besar-besaran dalam menentang pasukan tentera dan mereka menumpahkan taat setia serta percaya bahawa tiada pengkhianat yang akan kembali ke Argentina. Pengundi tidak mengundi dari pilihan yang diberikan, tetapi mereka lebih mengutamakan faktor social, politik dan ketenteraan bagi memulihkan dan meleraikan konflik yang sedia ada.



1973: Satu Keseimbangan

Faktor yang menyebabkan sesuatu kekejaman dan pertelingkahan adalah dari ekonomi yang tidak stabil, perncangan yang sering berubah, janji yang tidak ditepati dan kekecewaan yang berterusan. Walaupun begitu, jika dilihat dari perspektif yang berbeza dan merenung semula peristiwa lalu, terdapat kelebihan yang diperoleh daripada bencana yang dahsyat pada tahun 1973 kerana pada masa itu ekonomi dapat dilaksanakan secara saksama dan dapat bertahan sehingga tahun 1975.


Pencapaian yang paling menonjol ialah dari sektor pertanian di kawasan Pampa bermula dari awal 1960-an dan bertahan sehingga tahun 1980-an. Pencapaian ini dilihat sangat berbeza berbanding tahun-tahun sebelumnya yang mengalami kejatuhan dan kemunduran yang teruk. Namun begitu, segalanya beerubah pada tahun yang bertuah ini apabila Argentina dapat memenuhi keperluan makanan dan permintaan pasaran. Selain itu, mereka turut mengeluarkan bijiran dan minyak khususnya bagi Negara-negara jiran bagi menikmati faedah kenaikan harga minyak dan memulakan pembangunan industri.

Kawasan pertanian Pampa mengalami perubahan yang ketara daripada sebuah kawasan pedalaman yang mengekalkan tradisi turun menurun sehingga menjadi sebuah kepulauan ekonomi yang moden dan urban. Contohnya, penanaman buah-buahan di Lembah Rio Negro. Pihak kerajaan negeri berusaha menjalankan pelbagai promosi dengan pelbagai cara bagi menarik minat pelabur untuk melabur selain dari langkah-langkah sistematik dari Institut Teknologi Kajian Pertanian Negeri (INTA). Walaupun telah mengalami beberapa perubahan sehingga menjadi sebuah bandar yang moden, mereka masih mengekalkan tradisi yang telah diamalkan turun-temurun dan melakukan pengubahsuaian dengan kaedah-kaedah tertentu. Bukti permodenan kawasan ini dapat dilihat dari kesan-kesan ekonomi yang berlaku di kawasan ini. Selain itu, industri pembuatan traktor, alat penuaian, gudang simpanan gandum serta gudang-gudang lain melengkapkan sektor pertanian.

Saturday, January 23, 2010

video

NUMB BY LINKIN PARK



NUMB BY LINKIN PARK


I'm tired of being what you want me to be
Feeling so faithless lost under the surface
Don't know what you're expecting of me
Put under the pressure of walking in your shoes
(Caught in the undertow just caught in the undertow)
Every step that I take is another mistake to you
(Caught in the undertow just caught in the undertow)

[Chorus]
I've become so numb I can't feel you there
Become so tired so much more aware
I'm becoming this all I want to do
Is be more like me and be less like you

Can't you see that you're smothering me
Holding too tightly afraid to lose control
Cause everything that you thought I would be
Has fallen apart right in front of you
(Caught in the undertow just caught in the undertow)
Every step that I take is another mistake to you
(Caught in the undertow just caught in the undertow)
And every second I waste is more than I can take

[Chorus]
I've become so numb I can't feel you there
Become so tired so much more aware
I'm becoming this all I want to do
Is be more like me and be less like you

And I know
I may end up failing too
But I know
You were just like me with someone disappointed in you

[Chorus]
I've become so numb I can't feel you there
Become so tired so much more aware
I'm becoming this all I want to do
Is be more like me and be less like you

[Chorus]
I've become so numb I can't feel you there
I'm tired of being what you want me to be
I've become so numb I can't feel you there
I'm tired of being what you want me to be